chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) – Symptoms, causes


Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) , which is another name for chronic kidney disease, is characterised by a progressive loss of kidney function. The wastes and extra fluids in your blood are filtered by your kidneys, and the resulting urine is excreted. Increased amounts of fluid, electrolytes, and waste products in your body can be a sign of advanced chronic renal disease.

You may not exhibit many signs or symptoms in the early stages of chronic renal disease. Before the disease is advanced, you might not be aware that you have kidney disease.

In order to slow the development of kidney damage, the primary goal of chronic kidney disease treatment is to address the underlying cause. Even stopping the cause, however, kidney disease can still continue to worsen. In the absence of artificial filtering, end-stage renal failure from chronic kidney disease .

describe chronic kidney disease

Kidney dysfunction is brought on by the slowly and steadily progressing disorder known as CKD. But even if one kidney quits working properly, the other may still operate normally.

A kidney’s malfunction may worsen to a certain point and not worsenTrusted Source at all. However, the illness can occasionally worsen and lead to kidney failure.

Because symptoms do not frequently appear in the initial stages of the ailment, the majority of persons with CKD are unaware that they have it. Usually, the illness has progressed by the time a person experiences any symptoms. At this point, kidney damage is permanent.

How to identify chronic kidney disease

chronic kidney disease symptoms can include: high blood pressure; anaemia; edoema, or swollen hands, feet, and ankles; exhaustion; decreased urine production; and, in certain cases, crimson urine.

• In some circumstances, dark urine

• diminished mental acuity, when the condition is severe; appetite loss; chronic itching skin; and, in some circumstances, more frequent urination, especially at night.

Symptoms OF chronic kidney disease

  • If kidney damage advances slowly, signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease emerge over time. A buildup of fluid, bodily waste, or electrolyte issues can result from renal function loss. Depending on how serious it is, kidney damage might result in:
  • • Nausea
  • • Vomiting
  • • Appetite loss
  • • Fatigue and weakness
  • • Sleep issues
  • • Urinating more or less

• Lessened mental acuity; cramping muscles; swelling in the feet and ankles; dry, itchy skin; difficult-to-control high blood pressure (hypertension); and shortness of breath if fluid accumulates in the lungs

• Should fluid accumulate around the heart’s lining, chest discomfort may result.

Kidney illness frequently exhibits vague signs and symptoms. Consequently, other disorders may potentially be the reason why they exist. You might not experience symptoms until permanent damage has taken place since your kidneys are capable of compensating for reduced function.


The degree of CKD progression is assessed by doctors using glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The GFR demonstrates how effectively a person’s kidneys filter waste. Age, sex, and body size can all affect a person’s GFR.

By measuring the levels of creatinine in a patient’s blood, a doctor can establish that person’s GFR. A waste product of the acid creatine, which helps muscle cells obtain energy, is creatinine.

A generally consistent amount of creatinine is removed from the blood by the kidneys when they are functioning properly. An individual may have renal issues if their blood creatinine levels change.

A doctor can categorise CKD into the following stages depending on how a patient’s GFR changes.

Stage 1

A person is considered to have stage 1 chronic kidney disease if their GFR is at least 90 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Although there is indication of renal damage, this is normal kidney function. Protein in the urine or physical damage are a few of indicators of kidney impairment in stage 1 chronic kidney disease.

A stage 2 chronic kidney disease patient has a GFR of 60 to 89 ml/min per 1.73 m2. A GFR in this range typically indicates that a person’s kidneys are functioning effectively. This GFR, however, shows that a person with stage 2 chronic kidney disease has significant renal damage. These symptoms may include kidney damage that is actually physical or protein in the person’s urine.

  • STAGE 1
  • GFR of at least 90 millilitres per minute (ml/min) per 1.73 metres squared (m2) is referred to as stage 1 chronic kidney disease. Despite showing signs of kidney impairment, this is normal kidney function. In stage 1 chronic kidney disease, physical damage or protein in the urine are some indicators of renal impairment
  • STAGE 2
  • chronic kidney disease has a GFR of 60 to 89 ml/min per 1.73 m2. A GFR in this range typically denotes healthy renal function. A person with stage 2 chronic kidney disease, however, has additional symptoms of renal impairment, according to this GFR. These symptoms may include renal damage or protein in the person’s urine.

Anaemia, high blood pressure, more frequent urination, hand and foot edoema, back pain, bone damage, and anaemia are only a few symptoms.

If a person has stage 1-3 chronic kidney disease, they may be able to slow the progression of their kidney damage by doing the following: managing their blood sugar, if they have diabetes; managing their blood pressure; eating a healthy diet; abstaining from tobacco use; engaging in 30 minutes of physical activity each day, five days a week; maintaining a healthy weight; and scheduling appointments with a nephrologist, or kidney doctor.


chronic kidney disease patient may also choose to discuss maintaining a healthy diet with a dietician. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are further options that a person with stage 3 chronic kidney diseasecan discuss with a physician. These drugs can lower blood pressure and may lessen the progression of chronic kidney disease.


The GFR of an individual is 15-29 ml/min per 1.73 m2 by stage 4

A stage 2 chronic kidney disease patient has a GFR of 60 to 89 ml/min per 1.73 m2. A GFR in this range typically indicates that a person’s kidneys are functioning effectively. This GFR, however, shows that a person with stage 2 chronic kidney disease has significant renal damage. These symptoms may include kidney damage that is actually physical or protein in the person’s urine.

. An individual’s kidneys have moderate to severe impairment at this point. The final stage of kidney disease preceding renal failure, stage 4

A stage 2 chronic kidney disease patient has a GFR of 60 to 89 ml/min per 1.73 m2. A GFR in this range typically indicates that a person’s kidneys are functioning effectively. This GFR, however, shows that a person with stage 2 chronic kidney disease has significant renal damage. These symptoms may include kidney damage that is actually physical or protein in the person’s urine.

is a dangerous ailment.

Swollen hands and feet, back pain, and more frequent urination are among the symptoms more frequently seen in people with stage 4 CKD. complications like

A physician could advise speaking with a nephrologist or dietician if one has stage 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD). As well as ACE inhibitors and ARBs, a doctor may prescribe them.

Stage 5

GFR of 15 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or less is required for stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). The kidneys have failed or are on the verge of failing at this point of the disease.

The following are signs of renal failure: itchiness, muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, swelling in the hands and feet, back discomfort, more frequent urination, problems sleeping, and breathing difficulties.

Dialysis or a kidney transplant are required for survival in renal failure patients. When a person’s kidneys are no longer able to do so, renal dialysis helps filter their blood.

  • According to data, the number of patients who developed stage 1 Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in 2018 increased by 15%. In the meantime, the number of individuals with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in stages 2 to 5 remained largely stable.
  • To avoid major harm, kidney disease must be diagnosed early and treated quickly in patients.
  • Every year, diabetics should undergo a test to check for microalbuminuria, or minute levels of protein, in the urine. Early diabetic nephropathy, a form of kidney disease associated with diabetes, can be found using this test.
    • CAUSES
  • Our bodies’ intricate filtration mechanism is carried out by the kidneys. In order to do this, extra waste and fluid material from the blood must be removed and expelled from the body.
  • The kidneys clean the blood of poisons and waste. However, issues can arise:
  • If the kidneys are damaged or ill, the blood flow to them may not be adequate, and the kidneys may not function effectively.
  • • if a blockage stops urine from exiting the body
  • Diabetes and/or hypertension are common causes of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD).
  • Uncontrolled diabetes can cause kidney damage because sugar (glucose) builds up in the blood.
  • The glomeruli can also be harmed by high blood pressure. These kidney organelles function as waste product filters.
  • Other potential Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) causes include:
  • • Stagnant urine flow: Stagnant urine can back up from the bladder into the kidney. The kidneys are put under more strain and lose function when the urine flow is blocked. A tumour, kidney stones, and an enlarged prostate are examples of potential reasons.
  • • Kidney diseases:
  • A variety of kidney conditions exist, such as polycystic kidney disease, pyelonephritis, and glomerulonephritis.
  • • Renal artery stenosis:
  • This condition results in a narrowing or obstruction of the renal artery before it reaches the kidney.
  • • Heavy metal toxicity:
  • A typical cause of poisoning is lead.
  • • Issues with foetal development:
  • If the foetus’ kidneys do not grow properly in the womb, this may happen.
  • • Systemic lupus erythematosus:
  • This autoimmune disease causes the body’s immune system to mistakenly assault the kidneys as foreign tissue.

• Kidney function may be impacted by the mosquito-borne diseases yellow fever and malaria.\

• Specific medications:

Chronic use of some medications, especially NSAIDs, might result in renal failure.

• Abuse of illegal substances:

Using drugs like heroin or cocaine can harm the kidneys.

• Kidney injury:

The kidneys may sustain damage from a blow to the body or another physical harm.

Symptom and side effect management

Kidney damage caused by Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is frequently irreversible. However, some treatments can help manage symptoms, lower the risk of complications, and hold back the course of the illness.

These are a few of the ailments that Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)can lead to and need to be treated.

increased blood pressure

A CKD symptom or a Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) cause could be high blood pressure. To protect the kidneys and, as a result, slow the development of CKD, blood pressure must be brought down.

The necessity to take specific drugs may arise in people with high blood pressure. Trusted Source A person’s blood pressure can also be lowered by changing their lifestyle to include eating well and exercising frequently.


Red blood cells contain haemoglobin, which is responsible for transporting the body’s essential oxygen. Low levels of haemoglobin indicate anaemia in a person.

CKD and anaemia are most frequently treated with injections of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). ESAs imitate erythropoietin, a protein released by the bone marrow.

phosphorus balance

It’s possible for kidney patients’ bodies to improperly remove phosphorus. One aspect of treatment is to cut back on dietary phosphate consumption. Reducing their intake of dairy, red meat, eggs, and fish is typically the solution.

Itchy skin

For those with kidney failure or those who are getting dialysis, itching is a typical issue, especially in the later stages of CKD.

A person could find it difficult to sleep and find it tough to regulate their itching. To discuss their bothersome skin, a person can try talking to a dermatologist. For itching relief, the dermatologist could prescribe a patient certain drugs or moisturisers.

lacking in vitamin D

A vitamin D deficit is quite risky for those with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). For strong bones, you need vitamin D. Vitamin D from food or the sun must first be activated by the kidneys before the body can use it. Low vitamin D levels can cause a loss in bone density, which can result in osteoporosis or fractures.

Supplementation may be necessary for those who don’t get enough vitamin D. Doctors often make decisions based on a patient’s needs and health situation because the proof for its effectiveness is weak.

retaining fluid

People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) need to watch how much fluid they ingest, as well as how much salt they consume. A person is far more vulnerable to fluid overflow and accumulation if their kidneys are not functioning properly.

Consuming excessive amounts of salt can also make the body retain extra water. Salt retention can cause fluid retention, which can cause hypertension, which can worsen kidney illness and cause major heart issues.


To address the signs and diseases that arise as a result of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), people may need to take a variety of drugs.

Depending on the stage of their Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), a person may also need to try one of the following treatments or modifications to their way of life.


Treatment for renal failure must include a healthy diet. Since eating too much protein can strain a person’s kidneys, limiting the amount of protein in the diet may help halt the condition’s growth.

The precise amount of protein that an individual needs to consume, however, will vary based on their body type, state of health, and level of physical activity. The best sources of protein and recommended daily amounts should be discussed with a doctor or nutritionist.

Reducing nausea sensations through food adjustments may also be beneficial. In order to manage hypertension, one should carefully restrict their salt intake. In addition, a person may need to limit their intake of potassium and phosphorus because these substances can be harmful for those with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD).

Nsaids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen, specific antibiotics, and the use of dye with a CT scan should be avoided by those with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). As a result of how the kidneys function, there is a higher chance of side effects.

  • End stage treatment normally starts when a patient is in stage 5 and their kidneys are working at 15% of their normal capability. When a person adjusts their lifestyle, diet, and medications, but their kidneys are still unable to keep up with the process of eliminating waste and fluids, it is called renal failure.
  • peritoneal dialysis
  • When the kidneys are unable to perform this function, waste materials and extra fluid are mechanically removed from the blood by dialysis. Infection is one of the significant dangers of dialysis.
  • Kidney dialysis is available in two major forms. They are as follows:

• Hemodialysis:

A dialyzer, often known as an artificial kidney, pumps blood out of the patient’s body. Blood enters the body again through tubes after being filtered of waste by the machine. While it often takes place in a hospital or a dialysis facility, this technique can also be performed at home.

• Peritoneal dialysis:

This procedure filters blood through the patient’s abdomen. This occurs in the peritoneal cavity, which is home to a huge network of small blood arteries. In order to eliminate waste and extra fluid, a doctor inserts a catheter into the abdomen, which is then used to inject and drain a dialysis solution as needed.

For peritoneal dialysis, there are two subtypes:

• Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis:

This typically occurs as a person goes about their regular activities.

Automation of peritoneal dialysis

Transplanted kidney

For patients who do not have any other medical issues outside kidney failure, a kidney transplant is preferable to dialysis. But until they get a new kidney, kidney transplant candidates might need to go through dialysis.

Blood types that complement each other are required for kidney donors and recipients. A person’s body could reject a kidney if it is donated by someone whose blood type is incompatible.

The finest donors are typically siblings or very close family members. If no living donor is available, the hunt for a cadaver donor will start, and the patient will receive a kidney from someone who has recently passed away.

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