Haemorrhoids introduction

Haemorrhoids, or piles, are a frequent anal ailment. Inflamed rectum and anus blood vessels cause them. Haemorrhoids may be internal or external.

Several reasons may cause haemorrhoids. Chronic constipation, straining, extended sitting or standing, obesity, pregnancy, and a low-fiber diet are major reasons. Haemorrhoids may also be caused by genetics and medical factors.


Haemorrhoids have several causes. Haemorrhoids’ common causes and risk factors are:

Haemorrhoids are often caused by intestinal straining. Strained rectum and anus veins expand and inflame.

Constipation and diarrhoea may cause haemorrhoids. Chronic constipation and diarrhoea may irritate the rectal region.

Prolonged sitting or standing: Pressure on rectal veins may cause haemorrhoids. Desk workers and long-standing workers often have this.

Obesity: Extra weight strains pelvic and rectal veins, increasing haemorrhoid risk.

Pregnancy: Hormonal changes and pelvic pressure may induce haemorrhoids. Pregnancy haemorrhoids usually improve after delivery.

Age: Haemorrhoids may occur in elderly persons due to weakening rectal vein tissues.

Low-fiber diet: Constipation increases haemorrhoid risk. Fibre softens and regulates stools.

Genetic predisposition: If family members have haemorrhoids, certain people are more prone to develop them.

Haemorrhoids may be caused by liver illness, persistent cough, or pelvic tumours.


Haemorrhoids symptoms vary by kind and intensity. Haemorrhoids symptoms:

Haemorrhoids often cause rectal bleeding. Bright red blood may be observed on toilet paper, in the toilet bowl, and on stool after a bowel movement. Internal haemorrhoids often cause painless bleeding.

Haemorrhoids may cause anal itching and inflammation. Haemorrhoids discharge and inflamed skin surrounding the anus might cause this.

Pain or discomfort: External haemorrhoids may hurt, particularly with bowel movements or lengthy periods of sitting. Thrombosed external haemorrhoids may cause severe pain.

Haemorrhoids induce anal soreness and irritation. External haemorrhoids cause tiny, painful lumps around the anus.

Prolapse: Haemorrhoids may prolapse outside the anus. Prolapsed haemorrhoids may cause rectal pain and fullness.

Faeces leakage: Large internal or prolapsed haemorrhoids may cause the anal sphincter to leak tiny volumes of faeces.

It’s crucial to see a doctor since these symptoms might be caused by other diseases. They may assess your symptoms, do a physical exam, and offer therapy depending on your condition.


Medical history: The doctor will inquire about discomfort, bleeding, itching, and bowel changes. They may ask about prior haemorrhoids and any risk factors or underlying problems.

Physical examination: The doctor will examine the anal and rectal areas. This may entail checking for external haemorrhoids and internal ones with a gloved finger. An anoscope, a short, illuminated tube, may be used to inspect the rectum.

more testing: To diagnose or rule out other reasons, more tests may be necessary. Tests may include:

Digital rectal examination (DRE): The doctor inserts a greased, gloved finger into the rectum to check for internal haemorrhoids or rectal tumours.

Anoscopy or sigmoidoscopy: A thin, flexible tube with a light and camera is used to inspect the rectum and lower intestine. This improves haemorrhoid and other problem visibility.

Colonoscopy: If the doctor suspects a problem other than haemorrhoids, a colonoscopy may be ordered. A long, flexible tube with a camera examines the whole colon in this treatment.

To rule out other issues, a medical practitioner should diagnose you. The doctor might offer therapy or send you to a specialist based on the diagnosis.


Haemorrhoids are either internal or external.

Internal haemorrhoids occur within the rectum, commonly above the dentate line (rectum-anus junction). Mucosa, a painless lining, covers internal haemorrhoids. Unless prolapsed or thrombosed, internal haemorrhoids are painless. Internal haemorrhoids cause rectal bleeding, generally bright red blood on the toilet paper or bowl after a bowel movement. Itching, mucous discharge, and incomplete bowel movements may occur.

External haemorrhoids form beneath the skin surrounding the anus. Haemorrhoids surrounding the anal orifice are tiny lumps or swelling. They may hurt, itch, and inflame. Thrombosed haemorrhoids, which cause extreme discomfort and swelling, may arise in external haemorrhoids.

Haemorrhoids are also graded by severity:

Grade 1: Internal, non-prolapsed haemorrhoids.
Grade 2 haemorrhoids prolapse after bowel movements but retract on their own.
Grade 3 haemorrhoids prolapse during bowel movements and need manual pressing back in.
Grade 4: Permanently prolapsed haemorrhoids. They may become stuck outside the anus, producing pain.
Some people have internal and external haemorrhoids or modify their categorization over time.

As said, a doctor may diagnose and classify haemorrhoids with a physical exam or other testing. Haemorrhoids vary in severity and treatment.


Symptoms and severity determine haemorrhoid therapy. Haemorrhoids may usually be treated at home. However, severe or chronic instances may necessitate medical treatment. Haemorrhoids treatments include:

Lifestyle changes:

Fibre intake: Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes may soften stool and encourage regular bowel movements, lowering strain.
Water prevents constipation and softens faeces.
Straining during bowel motions might aggravate haemorrhoids. Avoid rushing.
Constipation may be prevented by frequent exercise.
Avoid lengthy periods of sitting or standing, which might put strain on rectal veins.
OTC treatments:

Topical creams, ointments, and suppositories: Hydrocortisone and witch hazel in over-the-counter medications may reduce haemorrhoid irritation, inflammation, and pain.
Warm baths

Interventions and procedures:

Rubber band ligation: A rubber band is placed around the base of an internal haemorrhoid to cut off its blood supply, shrinking and falling off within a few days.
Sclerotherapy: Injecting a chemical solution shrinks the haemorrhoid.
Infrared coagulation: Heat shrinks haemorrhoids by coagulating blood vessels.
Hemorrhoidectomy: In extreme situations or when other therapies fail, haemorrhoids may be surgically removed.
Consult a doctor to get the best therapy for your illness. They can diagnose, assess haemorrhoids, and offer the best therapy for your requirements.


Preventing haemorrhoids requires healthy lifestyle changes. Preventive steps:

Maintain a high-fiber diet to avoid constipation and haemorrhoids. Eat plenty of fruits, veggies, whole grains, and legumes.

Keep stools soft by drinking enough water throughout the day. Drink 8 glasses of water everyday.

Avoid straining during bowel motions, which may cause haemorrhoids. Avoid straining when pooping. Stool softeners and fibre supplements may help.

Regular exercise improves digestion and prevents constipation. Walk, swim, or cycle.

Obesity and extra weight may strain rectal veins. Eat well and exercise to stay slim.

Avoid lengthy toilet use to avoid rectal pressure. Respond quickly to bowel movements to prevent constipation.

Avoid lengthy periods of sitting or standing, which might strain rectal veins. Especially if you work sedentary, stretch and move.

Clean and dry the anal region. After a bowel movement, gently clean the area with mild soap and water or wet wipes. Avoid rough toilet paper and prolonged wiping.

Avoid delaying toilet visits: Constipation and straining may cause haemorrhoids. Act on impulse.


Haemorrhoid medicines relieve discomfort, itching, and inflammation. Haemorrhoid medications:

Haemorrhoids may be treated with OTC or prescription topical creams, ointments, or gels. These products include hydrocortisone, witch hazel, or astringents. Applying them immediately reduces itching, irritation, and pain.

Suppositories: Inserted into the rectum, suppositories directly treat internal haemorrhoids. Hydrocortisone or local anaesthetics relieve edoema, inflammation, and discomfort.

Haemorrhoids may be treated with over-the-counter painkillers such acetaminophen or NSAIDs like ibuprofen. If you have a medical condition or use other drugs, observe the dose and see a doctor.

Stool softeners or laxatives: These drugs may avoid constipation and make defecation simpler. Laxatives move bowels, while stool softeners provide moisture. Before using these drugs, ask a doctor about the right kind and dose.

Hemorrhoidal pads or wipes: Witch hazel or aloe vera pads help soothe and clean the anal region.

Risk factors

Haemorrhoids risk factors include many. These are:

Constipation or hard stools may cause chronic straining during bowel motions, which can cause haemorrhoids.

Chronic constipation or diarrhoea might strain bowel motions. Chronic constipation and diarrhoea may cause rectal irritation. Both may cause haemorrhoids.

Prolonged sitting or standing may put strain on rectal veins, making haemorrhoids more likely. This risk factor is widespread in sitting or standing jobs.

Obesity: Obesity puts strain on pelvic and rectal veins, raising haemorrhoids risk.

Pregnancy: The expanding uterus and hormonal changes increase pelvic pressure during pregnancy. These may cause pregnant haemorrhoids.

Ageing: Haemorrhoids may occur in elderly people due to weakening rectal vein tissues.

Low-fiber diet: Constipation and hard stools increase haemorrhoid risk. Fibre bulks stool and improves regularity.

Haemorrhoids may be inherited. Haemorrhoids are more likely in families.

Chronic coughing may cause rectal pressure and haemorrhoids.

Haemorrhoids may be caused by liver illness, persistent heart failure, or pelvic tumours.


Certainly! Haemorrhoids FAQs:

Q5: When should I have haemorrhoids checked?
A: See a doctor if you have serious symptoms including profuse bleeding, extreme pain, or if self-care doesn’t help. If you’re over 50 and haven’t had a colonoscopy or have a family history of colon cancer, see a doctor.

Q6: Haemorrhoids treatment options?
A: Lifestyle changes, self-care, and medical treatments may treat haemorrhoids. These include dietary adjustments, topical medicines, suppositories, pain relievers, rubber band ligation, sclerotherapy, and, in extreme situations, haemorrhoid surgery.

Q7: Is haemorrhoids preventable?
A: Healthy living choices may lower haemorrhoid risk. These include eating a high-fiber diet, keeping hydrated, avoiding straining, exercising frequently, and having appropriate bathroom habits.

Q8: Do haemorrhoids cause complications?
Haemorrhoids seldom cause major problems. However, severe bleeding, blood clots (thrombosis) in external haemorrhoids, or prolonged pain and discomfort may develop. Seek medical treatment for any worrying symptoms.

If you have particular health issues or queries, see a healthcare expert for personalised advice and assistance.

Myth vs fact

Certainly! Haemorrhoids: Myths and realities

Myth: Only old persons have haemorrhoids.
Fact: Haemorrhoids may afflict anybody, even children.

Myth: Haemorrhoids usually hurt.
Not all haemorrhoids hurt. Early-stage internal haemorrhoids are usually painless and only cause rectal bleeding or irritation. External or prolapsed haemorrhoids cause pain.

Myth: Haemorrhoids are colorectal cancer.
Haemorrhoids are not colorectal cancer. Haemorrhoids are enlarged rectal blood vessels, whereas colorectal cancer is abnormal colon or rectum cell development. Rectal bleeding may indicate both illnesses, therefore it’s crucial to see a doctor.

Myth: Haemorrhoids spread.
Haemorrhoids cannot spread. They aren’t contagious.

Myth: Public bathrooms and chilly surfaces induce haemorrhoids.
Fact: Prolonged sitting on cold surfaces or using public restrooms may cause pain, but they do not cause haemorrhoids. As said, rectal vein pressure causes haemorrhoids.

Myth: Haemorrhoids always need surgery.
Fact: Haemorrhoids surgery is usually reserved for severe instances that don’t respond to alternative treatments. Lifestyle changes, self-care, and non-surgical haemorrhoids may treat most.

Myth: Haemorrhoids are permanently healed.
Fact: Haemorrhoids can be controlled and alleviated, but there is no permanent cure. Healthy living habits and preventative actions may greatly minimise the likelihood of haemorrhoids and recurrence.

Haemorrhoid diagnosis, treatment, and management need precise information and medical advice.


Certainly! Haemorrhoid terminology include:

Haemorrhoids: Inflamed rectal or anal blood vessels. They may be internal (rectum) or exterior (anus).

Stool is kept in the rectum before being expelled.

Stool exits via the anus.

Internal haemorrhoids: Painless rectum haemorrhoids. They may bleed and protrude through the anus during bowel movements.

External haemorrhoids: Under-the-skin anus haemorrhoids. They itch, swell, and hurt.

Prolapsed Haemorrhoids: Internal haemorrhoids outside the anus. Reinsertion may be necessary.

Thrombosed Haemorrhoids: Blood-clot-forming external haemorrhoids. They induce significant discomfort, swelling, and blue colour.

Anal Canal: The brief section of the big intestine between the rectum and anus.

Sitz Bath: Soaking the buttocks and hips in a warm bath or small basin. Haemorrhoids are relieved by it.

Rubber Band Ligation: A little rubber band is wrapped around the base of an internal haemorrhoid to cut its blood supply. The haemorrhoid shrinks and falls out within days.

Sclerotherapy: Injecting a chemical solution into the haemorrhoid shrinks and scars it. Reduces haemorrhoid blood flow.

Hemorrhoidectomy: Surgery to remove haemorrhoids. Hemorrhoidal tissue is removed.

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