Heart disease – Symptoms and causes

introduction OF HEART

Heart disease – Symptoms and causes is that Your heart is the main component of your circulatory system, a network of blood veins that transports blood throughout your body. Additionally, it interacts with other physiological processes to control your heart rate and blood pressure. Your lifestyle, family history, and medical history are all factors that determine how well your heart functions.

The heart

The , organ about the size of your hand, pumps blood throughout your body. It functions as the primary organ of your circulatory system.

Your organ has four primary muscle-driven chambers, each propelled by electrical impulses. Your nervous system and brain are in charge of regulating heartbeat.

What a Human HearT Looks Like

The organ puts in a lot of effort to keep the body running. Learn about the organ’s incredible power and the functions of its various sections.

The typical human heart beats 100,000 times every day, distributing 2,000 gallons of blood.

That is a lot of effort for an organ that is no bigger than a large fist, weighs between 8 and 12 ounces.

The heart actually exerts more physical force than any other muscle throughout the course of a lifetime.

The cardiovascular system, a network of arteries and veins, is located in the middle of the chest between the lungs and is pumped by the heart. Blood is pushed towards the body’s tissues, cells, and organs.

The blood carries nutrients and oxygen to every cell, as well as waste products the cells make like carbon dioxide.

An intricate system of arteries, arterioles, and capillaries carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Veins and venules are used to carry blood back to the heart.

Heart organs in humans

The four chambers of the organ are the left and right atriums, as well as the left and right ventricles, two lower chambers.

Its four valves include the tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral, and aortic valves.

The superior vena cava and inferior vena cava, the body’s two largest veins, are gathered by the right atrium and pumped to the right ventricle via the tricuspid valve, where the pulmonary valve oxygenates the blood.

While the left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it through the mitral valve to the left atrium, the left ventricle pumps oxygen-rich blood through the aortic valve that connects the aorta and the body as a whole.

The coronary arteries run along to the surface of it and deliver oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.

The complicated impulses that regulate contraction and relaxation are also carried by a network of nerve tissue that covers the whole surface of it.

The pericardium’s outer layer encircles the major blood vessel roots in the heart, while its inner layer is attached to the heart muscle.



• Your body’s blood is pumped throughout by your heart. In addition, your heart

Blood pressure is maintained, and your heart rate is controlled in terms of both rhythm and speed.

How do your heart and other organs interact?

Your heart regulates your heart rate and other bodily processes in conjunction with other bodily systems. The fundamental systems are:

• Nervous system:

Your nervous system aids in maintaining heart rate management. When you are at rest or under stress, it transmits signals telling your heart to beat more quickly.

Your endocrine system produces and releases hormones. Your blood vessels are instructed to tighten or relax by these hormones, which has an impact on your blood pressure. Your thyroid gland’s hormones can also instruct your heart to beat more quickly or more slowly.

The Heart and Circulatory System

. Blood is pumped from your heart to your body’s organs, tissues, and cells. The blood carries nutrition and oxygen to all of the cells, as well as wastes and carbon dioxide that the cells produce. A intricate system of arteries, arterioles, and capillaries carries blood from the heart to the rest of your body. Blood is transported back to the heart through veins and venules. The network of vessels in your body would extend approximately 60,000 miles (more than 96,500 km) or more than twice the circumference of the earth if they were all set end to end.




Where is the heart in you?

AT THE FRONT OF YOUR CHEST IS WHERE YOUR HEART IS LOCATED. Your sternum, or breastbone, is a little to the left and behind it. YOUR RIBCAGE PROTECTS YOUR HEART.

Where does your heart lie?

Your body’s left side is where your heart is located. Between your right and left lungs, it is located. In order to accommodate the heart in your left chest, the left lung has been slightly condensed.

What size heart do you have?


How much does your heart weigh?

An adult’s heart weighs about 10 ounces. Your heart may weigh a little more or a little less depending on your gender and physical stature.

What heart structure is present?

Your heart is made up of similar elements as a house. Your heart is made up of:

 • Walls.

• Chambers (rooms).

• Blood vessel plumbing; valves on doors; electrical conduction; and plumbing in doors.

Heart muscle

The walls of your heart contain the muscles that contract (squeeze) and relax to pump blood throughout your body. The septum is a layer of muscular tissue that divides the left and right sides of your heart.

There are three layers in your heart’s walls:

Inner layer of the endocardium.


 Middle layer of muscle.


 A layer of defense One layer of your pericardium is called the epicardium. Your entire heart is encased in a protective sac called the pericardium. To lubricate your heart and prevent it from rubbing against other organs, it secretes fluid.

There are four chambers in your heart

 The heart has two chambers on each side: two ventricles at the bottom and an atrium (plural: atria) at the top.

• Right atrial:

Blood with low oxygen levels enters your right atrium from two major veins. Your upper body’s blood is carried via the superior vena cava. The inferior vena cava raises blood from the lower body. The right atrium then pumps the blood to your right ventricle.

• Right ventricle:

Through the pulmonary artery, the lower right chamber delivers oxygen-poor blood to your lungs. The lungs oxygenated the blood.


• Left atrium:

The pulmonary veins transport blood to the left atrium after the lungs have infused it with oxygen. Your left ventricle receives blood through its higher chamber.

• Left ventricle: Compared to the right, the left ventricle is marginally bigger. It transfers blood enriched in oxygen to the rest of your body.

cardiac valves

The doorways between your heart chambers are analogous to your heart valves. To allow blood to pass through, they reopen and close.

Between your upper and lower heart chambers, there are valves called atrioventricular (AV) valves.

 They consist of:

Door between your right atrium and right ventricle is called the tricuspid valve.

A door between your left atrium and left ventricle is called the mitral valve.

The blood that leaves your ventricles opens semilunar (SL) valves. They consist of:

• Aortic valve:

opens when blood leaves your left ventricle and travels to your aorta, the artery that supplies your body with oxygen-rich blood.

• Pulmonary valve:

 This valve opens when blood travels from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries, which are the sole arteries that supply the lungs with oxygen-poor blood.

vascular system

  • Three different types of blood vessels are used by the heart to pump blood throughout your body: arteries, veins, and capillaries. The pulmonary arteries, which supply blood to your lungs, are an exception.
  • • Veins return blood depleted in oxygen to the heart.
  • Small blood veins called capillaries are where your body exchanges oxygen-rich blood with blood that needs more oxygen.
  • A system of coronary arteries carries nutrients to and from your heart. These arteries follow the outside of your heart. They are there to service the heart.
  • The circumflex artery and the left anterior descending artery are the two branches of the left coronary artery.
  • Blood is supplied by the circumflex artery to the left atrium, the left ventricle’s side, and its back.
  • The left ventricle’s top and bottom, as well as the front of the septum, are all supplied with blood by the left anterior descending artery (LAD).
  • Blood is supplied by the right coronary artery (RCA) to the right atrium, right ventricle, lower part of the left ventricle, and septum’s back.
  • system for conducting electricity
  • The electrical wiring in a house is analogous to the conduction system of your heart. It controls how quickly and rhythmically your heart beats.

 It contains:

Sends the impulses that cause your heart to beat: Sinoatrial (SA) node.

• Atrioventricular (AV) node:

 Transfers electrical signals from the upper to the lower chambers of your heart.

A network of electrical fibres and bundles can also be found in your heart.

This network consists of:

Your left ventricle receives electrical impulses from your left bundle branch.

Your right ventricle receives electrical impulses from the right bundle branch.

• Bundle of His:

 Delivers impulses to the Purkinje fibres from your AV node.

• Purkinje fibres:

your heart’s ventricles to contract and circulate blood.What diseases and ailments impact the human heart?

One of the most prevalent ailments affecting humans is heart disease. Heart disease is the top cause of death in the US for persons of all sexes and from the majority of racial and ethnic backgrounds.

Heart disease – Symptoms and causes

• Atrial fibrillation (Afib):

Your atrium experiences irregular electrical impulses.


 An irregular heartbeat or a heartbeat that is too rapid, too slow, or in between.

The unusual thickening, enlargement, or rigidity of your heart muscle is known as cardiomyopathy.

When your heart is too stiff or too weak to adequately pump blood throughout your body, you have congestive heart failure.

Coronary artery disease:

the enlargement of plaque-induced coronary artery narrowing

• A coronary artery suddenly becomes blocked during a heart attack (myocardial infarction), cutting off oxygen to a section of your heart muscle

• Pericarditis:

Inflammation of the pericardium, the lining of your heart.

• Typical heart ailments

Heart disease is a broad term that refers to a variety of heart illnesses and issues.

The best course of action is to talk to your doctor or a heart specialist about your situation. They can provide you advice on the proper diagnosis, name of your condition, and course of action.

The heart’s capacity to function effectively is impacted by heart disease and other diseases.

Sometimes being aware of what’s going on can make you feel less anxious.

cardiovascular disease

In Scotland, coronary heart disease is the most typical cardiac disorder. This is brought on when the coronary arteries, which feed blood to the heart, become blocked or restricted and are unable to do so.

It might trigger a heart attack or angina.


Angina is a pain or discomfort that develops in your chest, arm, neck, stomach, or jaw when the blood flow to your heart is reduced as a result of artery narrowing. The term for this blockage is atheroma..

When you are stressed or engaged in a demanding activity, your heart will give you angina as a warning that it is not receiving enough oxygen. Stable angina occurs when a person has learned to recognise the level of activity that will trigger an angina attack.

You should seek urgent medical treatment if you are experiencing inexplicable chest pain because you need to have your general health evaluated.

Erratic angina

Undiagnosed chest pain or a sudden exacerbation of angina are both examples of unstable angina. Angina attacks become more frequent and there is less and less activity when the blood flow to the heart is severely constrained.

Even if you are at rest, these attacks could awaken you from a nap. They may last for as long as ten minutes.

You need to see your doctor right away, and you might be taken to the hospital.

This condition is occasionally known as acute coronary syndrome (ACS), pending the results of further investigations.

Chest pain

A heart attack, often referred to as a myocardial infarction (MI), takes place when the blood supply to a portion of your heart muscle is totally cut off. The most frequent reason for this is when a piece of fat breaks off and forms a blood clot inside a coronary artery. This could harm the area of your heart muscle that was supplied by that specific coronary artery.

Heart attack

If the heart’s pumping function is inefficient, your heart muscle will be unable to supply your body with the blood and oxygen it needs, which can result in a variety of symptoms, including exhaustion and shortness of breath. Heart failure is the term used to describe this condition since your heart is not functioning properly.

Arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat)

The electrical system in the heart muscle contributes to the heartbeat’s stimulation. Your heart may beat abnormally (bradycardia), too quickly (tachycardia), or too slowly (bradycardia) if the electrical signals within it are disrupted or messed up. Arrhythmia is the term for this.

Valve illness

To control the blood flow through the heart, the valves open and close. A number of symptoms, such as shortness of breath and swelling ankles, can result from valve issues, including an increase in your heart’s workload and a strain on the heart muscle.

• Weakness or disorientation;

 • angina or palpitations in the chest;

Elevated blood pressure

The heart can also be impacted by hypertension, sometimes known as high blood pressure. Although hypertension is not a disease in and of itself, it can increase the risk of contracting serious diseases such coronary heart disease, heart attacks, and strokes.

Heart defects that are congenital

When a developing fetus’s heart exhibits an anomaly or defect while still inside the mother’s womb, it is said to have congenital problems.

One birth defect or numerous birth defects are both possible. Some congenital cardiac problems pose a threat to the newborn’s life right away or over time.

Heart diseases that are inherited

Family members might pass on inherited conditions to their offspring. They are sometimes referred to as inherited or familial cardiac disorders.

They can be fatal and can affect persons of any age. A sudden death without a clear reason is frequently the first indication that something is wrong.

Although some congenital problems can also be inherited, these conditions are distinct from the majority of congenital conditions.

How can I maintain a healthy heart?

Follow the treatment recommendations given to you by your doctor if you have a cardiac issue. It’s crucial to take drugs exactly as directed.

Additionally, you can alter your way of living to maintain heart health. It is possible for you to: • Achieve and keep a healthy weight for your sex and age.

• Consume alcohol sparingly.

• Consume plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains as part of a heart-healthy diet.

• Engage in light exercise for at least 150 minutes per week.

• Cut back on your sodium intake.

• Control your stress by practising wholesome techniques like journaling or meditation.

• Stop smoking and/or using tobacco products, and stay away from people who are smoking.




Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *