premenstrual syndrome

premenstrual syndrome

premenstrual syndrome introduction

Some women have physical, emotional, and behavioural symptoms before their menstrual cycle, called premenstrual syndrome (PMS). 75% of menstrual women get PMS.

PMS symptoms vary per gender and intensity. Bloating, breast soreness, weariness, headaches, and appetite changes may occur. Psychological symptoms include mood fluctuations, impatience, anxiety, sadness, and trouble focusing. Sleep changes, social disengagement, and diminished interest in typical activities are behavioural signs.

Hormonal changes during menstruation may trigger PMS, although the specific reason is unknown. Oestrogen, progesterone, and serotonin fluctuations may cause PMS symptoms. Stress, lifestyle, and hormonal sensitivity may also affect symptoms.

PMS is usually diagnosed by the menstrual cycle’s symptoms. A menstruation diary helps document symptoms and create a trend. Doctors may consider screening out other medical disorders that might cause similar symptoms.

PMS treatment targets individual symptoms. Regular exercise, a good diet, stress reduction, and enough sleep may lessen symptoms. Birth control pills and over-the-counter pain medicines may help reduce symptoms. Doctors may urge additional assessment and therapy for serious symptoms that impair everyday life.

PMS is tolerable despite its pain and misery. Healthcare providers may assist patients create a customised treatment plan to enhance their quality of life.


PMS is thought to be caused by hormonal changes during menstruation. PMS symptoms may result from menstrual cycle oestrogen and progesterone variations.

Key causes may cause PMS:

Hormonal variations may alter brain neurotransmitters like serotonin, which regulates mood. PMS symptoms are often caused by hormonal changes.

Chemical changes in the brain: Serotonin, a mood-regulating neurotransmitter, may alter PMS symptoms.

Sensitivity to hormone changes: Some women are particularly sensitive to the typical hormonal changes during menstruation, which may worsen PMS symptoms.

Chemical imbalances: Cortisol, a stress hormone, and GABA, which regulates anxiety and mood, may be imbalanced in PMS.

Genetics: Women with a family history of PMS or mental problems may develop symptoms.

Psychological factors: Stress, sadness, and anxiety may worsen or sensitise PMS symptoms.

PMS is complicated, and its causes vary. PMS symptoms may result from hormones, neurotransmitters, genetics, and psychology. Understanding the mechanics requires further investigation.


PMS causes a variety of physical, mental, and behavioural symptoms in the days or weeks before menstruation. Women suffer different symptoms and intensity. PMS symptoms include:

Physical symptoms:
Fluid retention causes bloating in many women.
Breast tenderness: Breasts may swell and hurt.
Fatigue: Feeling weary or unmotivated.
Migraines: Some women have migraines.
Appetite changes: Cravings, hunger, and eating behaviours may vary.
Joint or muscle discomfort: Joint stiffness, pains, or pain.
Insomnia, difficulty getting asleep, or excessive drowsiness.
Psychiatric symptoms:
Mood swings: Irritability, anger, melancholy, or enhanced sensitivity.
Worry, stress, or disquiet.
Depression: Sadness, despondency, or apathy.
weeping spells: Random weeping.
Irritability and anger: Short temper or hypersensitivity to little annoyances.
Difficulty concentrating: Memory lapses, difficulty concentrating.
Behavioural symptoms:
Social withdrawal: Desire to isolate or disinterest in social activity.
Sexual arousal decreases.
Unusual desires, increased appetite, or binge eating.
Poor stress tolerance: Sensitivity, overload, or trouble managing everyday pressures.
Menstruation usually alleviates these problems. If the symptoms are severe, impair everyday functioning, or remain beyond menstruation, a doctor should be consulted.


PMS is diagnosed based on symptom pattern and menstrual cycle. PMS may be diagnosed using the following methods:

Tracking symptoms during two menstrual cycles might reveal a trend. Symptoms, severity, and menstrual cycle timing should be recorded in a symptom journal. This information may assist detect PMS and rule out comparable diseases.

Medical History: A doctor will inquire about symptoms, length, and effect on everyday life and health. They may also ask about medical issues or drugs that may worsen PMS symptoms.

Physical Examination: A physical examination may rule out other medical diseases that produce comparable symptoms. This checkup may involve breast, pelvic, and general checks.

Laboratory testing: Blood testing may be advised to rule out underlying medical disorders that may cause PMS symptoms. Hormone levels, thyroid function, and other tests may be performed.

PMS is usually diagnosed by evaluating symptoms and medical history. To rule out other illnesses, additional assessment may be needed if symptoms are severe, disrupt everyday functioning, or persist beyond the menstrual cycle.

A gynaecologist or primary care physician may evaluate symptoms, run tests, and prescribe therapy.


PMS is categorised by its main symptoms. Symptoms from numerous categories are conceivable. PMS types:

PMS-A (Anxiety): This kind has severe anxiety and nervousness. PMS-A may cause irritation, restlessness, and trouble focusing.

PMS-C (desires): PMS-C causes desires for sugary and carbohydrate-rich meals. PMS-C may cause weight gain, bloating, and food cravings.

Depressive symptoms characterise PMS-D. PMS-D may cause melancholy, despair, worthlessness, sleep problems, and concentration issues.

PMS-H (Hyperhydration) causes bloating and fluid retention. Water retention may cause PMS-H breast discomfort, edoema, and weight gain. They may experience abdominal and extremity bloating.

PMS-P (Pain): PMS-P causes pain. PMS-P may cause headaches, joint or muscle discomfort, and body pains. This variety may also cause stomach pain.

These kinds aren’t recognised or categorised in all medical contexts. They may help doctors understand and treat PMS. PMS categories may assist adapt therapy to an individual’s symptoms.

If you think you have PMS, see a doctor for a diagnosis and treatment options.


PMS therapy reduces and manages symptoms. Symptom intensity and influence on everyday life determine therapy. Recommended treatments include:

Lifestyle changes:

Regular exercise: Yoga and aerobics might minimise PMS symptoms.
Healthy diet: Limiting coffee, salt, and sugar and eating healthy grains, fruits, vegetables, and lean meats may reduce symptoms.
Stress management: Deep breathing, meditation, and relaxing hobbies may help reduce stress.
Sleep hygiene: Regular sleep schedules and sleep-friendly environments increase sleep quality and minimise tiredness.
Dietary supplements:

Calcium: Calcium pills or dietary calcium may improve mood swings, irritation, and bloating.
Magnesium: Some research show magnesium supplementation may reduce PMS symptoms, notably mood fluctuations and bloating.
Vitamin B6: Vitamin B6 may reduce mood swings and breast soreness.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs): Over-the-counter painkillers like ibuprofen or naproxen sodium may ease PMS-related headaches and cramps.
Hormonal contraceptives: Birth control tablets and other hormonal contraceptives may help some people with PMS.
Antidepressants: SSRIs like fluoxetine or sertraline may treat severe depression, anxiety, and irritability.
Therapy and Support:

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT): CBT may help PMS sufferers cope, regulate stress, and change negative thinking patterns.
Support groups: Support groups and counselling may help people exchange experiences and coping skills.
Consult a healthcare practitioner to get the best therapy for your symptoms and requirements. They may create an individualised treatment plan and track your progress to enhance symptom management and quality of life.


Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) cannot be prevented, however lifestyle adjustments and measures may minimise symptoms. Preventive actions may help:

Live Healthy:

Balanced diet: Eat fruits, vegetables, entire grains, and lean meats. Processed meals, coffee, alcohol, and salty or sweet foods might increase PMS symptoms.
Regular exercise: Walk, jog, or cycle for 30 minutes most days of the week. Exercise reduces PMS symptoms.
Good sleep hygiene: Aim for 7-9 hours of excellent sleep each night. Make bedtime enjoyable and comfortable.
Manage Stress:

Stress-reduction strategies include deep breathing, meditation, yoga, and hobbies.
Time management: Prioritise and organise to reduce stress and overload. Delegate and manage time.
Self-care: Do things that make you happy and relax, including taking baths, reading, being outdoors, or being creative.
Nutritional supplements:

Calcium and vitamin D consumption may reduce PMS symptoms. Under medical supervision, try calcium-rich diets or supplements.
Omega-3 fatty acids: Fish oil may lessen PMS symptoms, according to certain research. Ask your doctor about taking omega-3 supplements.
Track Symptoms:

Keep a symptom diary: Record your symptoms, severity, and menstrual cycle. Tracking symptoms may reveal trends and predict symptom onset.
Get Help:

Discuss PMS with friends, family, or support groups. Discussing symptoms might help you cope and give emotional support.
Preventive strategies work differently for everyone. Consult a doctor if your symptoms continue or adversely influence your everyday life despite preventative measures.


When lifestyle adjustments and self-care don’t work, PMS medication may help. PMS medications:

Over-the-counter NSAIDs like ibuprofen and naproxen sodium may reduce PMS symptoms including headaches, breast tenderness, muscular pains, and cramps. Reduces inflammation and pain.

Hormonal Contraceptives: Birth control tablets and other hormonal contraceptives may help manage PMS symptoms. These contraceptives may stabilise oestrogen and progesterone levels, reducing PMS symptoms.

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): These antidepressants may treat PMS-related sadness, anxiety, irritability, and mood fluctuations. Fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine are PMS SSRIs.

Diuretics: If PMS causes water retention and bloating, diuretics may assist. Swelling and bloating may be reduced with diuretics.

A doctor should prescribe and oversee medicine. Before prescribing, they will assess your symptoms, medical history, and contraindications. To treat PMS symptoms without side effects, locate the right medicine and dose.

To make an educated choice and create an individualised treatment plan, examine pharmaceutical options, benefits, and risks with your healthcare professional.

Risk factors

PMS risk factors include many. These risk factors may increase the likelihood of PMS. PMS risks include:

PMS is caused by hormone fluctuations. PMS may be more common in women with hormonal fluctuations. Oestrogen and progesterone swings and hormonal sensitivity are included.

Age: PMS often affects women in their late 20s to early 40s, however it may occur at any age throughout reproductive years. PMS symptoms reduce as women approach menopause.

Family History: A mother or sister with PMS or mood problems might raise the risk of PMS. This risk may be inherited or environmental.

Stress: Stress may worsen PMS. Chronic stress may increase PMS symptoms in women.

PMS symptoms are more common in women with mood disorders like despair or anxiety. These mental health disorders may contribute to PMS.

Lifestyle factors may raise PMS risk. Sedentary lifestyle, bad nutrition (heavy in processed sweets, coffee, and alcohol), and insufficient sleep.

These risk factors may cause PMS, but they do not ensure it. Many women with risk factors never experience substantial PMS symptoms. Multiple variables might affect PMS onset and intensity in each individual.

Consult a doctor if you have particular concerns or symptoms that are interfering with your regular life.


Certainly! PMS FAQs:

PMS and PMDD are menstrual disorders with physical and emotional symptoms. PMDD, a more severe version of PMS, affects everyday living and quality of life. PMDD causes more severe mood fluctuations, impatience, and sadness.

PMS symptoms change monthly?
PMS symptoms vary month-to-month. Some months are moderate and tolerable, while others are harsh and disruptive. Tracking symptoms over numerous cycles might reveal trends.

Perimenopause PMS?
Yes, PMS-like symptoms may occur during perimenopause. Hormonal changes might affect mood, energy, and other PMS symptoms.

PMS without symptoms?
PMS may occur without physical symptoms. Some women have mood swings, anger, and worry but no physical pain.

Can pregnancy cause PMS?
PMS usually disappears during pregnancy. Pregnancy hormones reduce PMS. Pregnancy hormones might cause mood swings and breast soreness in some women.

Natural cures for PMS?
Lifestyle adjustments including exercise, stress reduction, a balanced diet, and proper sleep might help some women with PMS. Calcium, magnesium, and vitamin B6 may also assist. Before using any new supplements, see a doctor.

When should I get PMS treatment?
Seek medical attention if PMS symptoms adversely impact your life, relationships, or well-being. A doctor may diagnose and treat your problems.

It’s recommended to talk to a doctor about your PMS symptoms since everyone’s experience is different.

Myth vs fact

Certainly! PMS myths and facts:

Myth: PMS is natural.
Fact: Severe PMS symptoms may negatively impair a woman’s quality of life. Severe PMS symptoms may necessitate medical care.

Myth: PMS is mental.
PMS has physical and emotional symptoms. Menstrual hormones may cause physical problems.

Myth: All women get PMS.
Fact: PMS symptoms vary widely. Some endure bloating and breast soreness, while others have mood swings and irritability. Symptoms vary by individual, intensity, and length.

Myth: PMS excuses mood swings and inappropriate behaviour.
Fact: Hormonal variations induce PMS symptoms including mood swings, impatience, and emotional shifts, which women cannot regulate. Instead than discounting these symptoms as excuses, women should be supported.

Myth: PMS exclusively affects younger women.
PMS affects reproductive women of all ages. PMS may affect teenagers and people nearing menopause.

Myth: PMS is untreatable.
PMS is treatable. Regular exercise, a balanced diet, stress reduction, and enough sleep may reduce symptoms. NSAIDs, hormonal contraceptives, and antidepressants may help treat symptoms.

Myth: PMS is PMDD.
PMDD is not PMS. PMDD, a rarer variant of PMS, causes extreme mood swings, sadness, irritability, and other symptoms that impair everyday life.

Myth: PMS women overreact.
PMS is not caused by hypersensitivity. The hormonal changes during menstruation might cause physical and emotional discomfort.

To help women with PMS, it’s necessary to debunk PMS misconceptions. If you’re worried about your symptoms, see a doctor for a diagnosis and treatment.


Certainly! Key PMS terms:

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): Physical and mental symptoms that occur before menstruation.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD): A severe version of PMS with severe physical and mental symptoms that impair a woman’s everyday life.

Hormonal Fluctuations: During menstruation, oestrogen and progesterone levels fluctuate, which may cause PMS symptoms.

Menstrual Cycle: The monthly cycle in which women release an egg from the ovary, prepare the uterus for pregnancy, then shed the uterine lining if pregnancy does not occur.

Oestrogen: A female sex hormone generated mostly by the ovaries that regulates the reproductive system and secondary sexual traits.

Progesterone: An ovarian hormone that regulates the menstrual cycle and prepares the uterus for pregnancy.

Mood Swings: Rapid mood fluctuations, typically oscillating between happiness, irritation, melancholy, and worry.

Irritability: Sensitivity or displeasure that may lead to a short temper or emotional reaction.

Fatigue: Physical and mental exhaustion.

Bloating: An abdominal enlargement caused by fluid or gas buildup.

Breast tenderness: Premenstrual breast discomfort, sensitivity, or soreness.

Cramps: Menstrual cramps in the lower abdomen or back.

NSAIDs, such ibuprofen and naproxen sodium, ease PMS discomfort and inflammation.

SSRIs: Antidepressants that treat severe PMS and PMDD symptoms.

Diuretics: PMS-related fluid retention and bloating may be reduced with diuretics.

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