Prostate cancer, causes, symptoms, risk factors, types and treatments


The prostate gland, a tiny walnut-shaped organ below the bladder in males, produces cancer. Seminal fluid from the prostate gland feeds and carries sperm.

Tumours emerge when prostate gland cells expand and divide uncontrolled. In later phases, this abnormal growth may metastasis to lymph nodes, bones, and other organs.

Age, family history, race (African-American males are at greater risk), and genetic abnormalities increase cancer risk. cancer’s aetiology is unclear.

Early diagnosis requires frequent screenings and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing since early-stage cancer seldom has symptoms. The malignancy may cause trouble urinating, poor urine flow, blood in the urine or semen, erectile dysfunction, bone discomfort, and weight loss.

PSA testing, DREs, ultrasounds, MRIs, and biopsies are used to diagnose cancer. Cancer is staged by size, location, and spread after diagnosis.

cancer treatment depends on stage, aggressiveness, patient condition, and personal preferences. Active surveillance, radical prostatectomy, radiation treatment, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy may be used to treat cancer. A multidisciplinary healthcare team determines therapy.

cancer prognoses vary based on stage and grade upon diagnosis. Early detection and treatment improve results. Long-term treatment and recurrence detection need monthly PSA testing and checkups.

Patients should talk to their doctors about their risk factors, screening choices, and cancer prevention, detection, and treatment.

Causes of Prostate cancer

cancer causes are unknown. Researchers have found various risk factors for this condition. cancer risk factors:

Age: this cancer affects older males. cancer is most common in males over 65, and risk rises after 50.

Family history: Having a parent or sibling with cancer raises your risk. If numerous family members are ill if the individual was diagnosed early, the risk is increased.

Ethnicity: Certain ethnicities have higher cancer rates. African-American males are more prone to get aggressive illness. Asian and Hispanic guys are safer than Caucasians.

Genetic factors: BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations, linked to breast and ovarian malignancies, may raise prostate cancer risk in certain men.

Prostate cancer may be caused by testosterone and DHT. High hormone levels or hormone-raising diseases may raise risk in men.

Lifestyle variables: Lifestyle factors may cause cancer, although the data is inconclusive. These include obesity, smoking, a high-red meat and dairy diet, and inactivity.

Having risk factors doesn’t guarantee cancer. Many people without risk factors get the condition. cancer may be caused by genetics, environment, and lifestyle, but further study is required.

Symptoms of Prostate cancer

cancer frequently has no early signs. Men may encounter these symptoms as the condition progresses:

cancer causes urinary issues. Such as:
Frequent nighttime urination.
Urination difficulty.
Urinary incontinence.
Urinary urgency.

Unable to empty bladder.
Urinating hurts.
Prostate cancer may produce blood in urine or semen. Blood in pee or semen requires medical attention.

cancer may cause erectile dysfunction. Men may struggle with erections.

Advanced cancer may cause pelvic, lower back, hip, and upper thigh pain. Pain may spread to the bones.

Advanced cancer might cause unexplained weight loss and exhaustion. These symptoms may indicate cancer spread.

These symptoms may also be caused by BPH or urinary tract infections, not alone cancer. If you have any of these symptoms, see a doctor.

Regular prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and digital rectal examinations (DRE) may identify cancer early, particularly if you have risk factors or symptoms.

Diagnosis of Prostate cancer

Screening tests, clinical exams, and other diagnostics are used to diagnose cancer. cancer diagnosis requires these steps:

Screening tests

PSA test: This blood test measures prostate-produced protein PSA. PSA levels may increase for several reasons, including cancer.
Digital Rectal Exam (DRE): A doctor uses a gloved, lubricated finger to feel the prostate gland for lumps or hard spots.
Diagnostic methods:

Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS): A probe is placed into the rectum to produce prostate gland pictures using high-frequency sound waves. It evaluates prostate size, shape, and anomalies.
A biopsy may be conducted if PSA levels are high if DRE or ultrasonography findings are abnormal. A tiny needle removes prostate tissue samples during a biopsy. Cancer cells are detected using microscopy.
Grading and Staging:

Staging: cancer may be staged after confirmation. Bone, CT, and MRI scans can determine whether the disease has progressed beyond the prostate.
Gleason Score: The biopsy samples’ Gleason scores show the cancer cells’ aggressiveness or grade. Based on microscope appearance, cancer cells are scored from 6 (low-grade) to 10 (high-grade).
PSA, DRE, biopsy, and staging assist doctors diagnose and stage cancer. The best treatment choices and a personalised care strategy depend on this information.

To effectively detect cancer, visit a skilled healthcare expert about your circumstances, risk factors, and diagnostic processes.

Types of Prostate cancer

Adenocarcinoma and uncommon subtypes make up cancer.

Most cancers are adenocarcinomas. Slow-growing prostate glandular cells cause it. Adenocarcinoma is graded by cancer cell aggressiveness using the Gleason grading method. Gleason scores affect prognosis and therapy.

Rare Subtypes: Rare prostate cancer subtypes may have various features and therapeutic choices. Subtypes include

Small Cell Prostate Cancer: This aggressive subtype resembles small cell lung cancer. It grows quickly and has a worse prognosis than adenocarcinoma.

Ductal Carcinoma: Prostate duct cells cause ductal carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma is more prevalent.

Sarcomatoid Carcinoma: This uncommon and aggressive subtype contains carcinomatous (glandular) and sarcomatous (connective tissue) components.

Carcinoid and neuroendocrine carcinomas of the prostate are uncommon. They spread easily and develop quickly.

Rare subtypes may need different therapy than adenocarcinoma and have a worse prognosis. Immunohistochemistry and molecular testing may identify these subtypes.

Most cancers are adenocarcinomas, and therapy and management are dependent on this kind. Healthcare practitioners experienced with unusual subtypes must assess and treat them individually.

Treatment of Prostate cancer

cancer therapy varies on stage, grade, health, and personal preferences. Main cancer treatments include:

Low-risk cancer may benefit from aggressive monitoring. PSA testing, DREs, and biopsies monitor the malignancy. Treatment is delayed until cancer progresses.


Radical prostatectomy removes the prostate gland and surrounding structures. Open, laparoscopic, or robotic-assisted surgery may be used.
Radiation therapy:

External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT): High-energy X-rays attack prostate cancer cells from the outside.
Brachytherapy: Radioactive seeds are placed into the prostate gland for targeted radiation treatment.
Hormone Therapy:

Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT): Drugs or surgery inhibit testosterone production to decrease prostate cancer cell development.
Chemotherapy kills or stops cancer cells. It is usually reserved for advanced or metastatic prostate cancer when hormone treatment fails.

Targeted therapy targets cancer cells and their molecular pathways. Metastatic cancer that hasn’t responded to prior treatments may warrant these treatments.

Immunotherapy: Drugs encourage the immune system to target cancer cells. Immunotherapies may treat advanced cancer.

Palliative care helps advanced cancer patients live better. It manages symptoms, relieves pain, and supports patients and families.

Healthcare practitioners should explain each patient’s treatment options. Urologists, radiation oncologists, medical oncologists, and others may collaborate on treatment.

Treatment programmes are extremely individualised, so what works for one person may not work for another. To evaluate treatment response, side effects, and cancer recurrence, follow-up care is needed.

Prevention from Prostate cancer

Lifestyle changes and risk reduction may reduce the chance of cancer or postpone its start. Preventive measures:

Healthy Diet: Eat fruits, vegetables, entire grains, and lean meats. Avoid red and processed meats, saturated fats, and sugar. Tomatoes, cruciferous vegetables, berries, and green tea are good sources of antioxidants and phytochemicals.

Exercise: Stay active and healthy. Get 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity or 75 minutes of strenuous exercise every week. Before exercising, see a doctor.

Tobacco and Alcohol: Avoid smoking and secondhand smoke. Limit or avoid alcohol. Alcohol abuse increases cancer risk.

Obesity increases the chance of aggressive cancer. Eat well and exercise to stay slim.

Regular screenings may detect cancer early. Based on your age, family history, and risk factors, talk to a healthcare provider regarding PSA and DRE testing and frequency.

Your Risk: Know your cancer family history. If your father or sibling has cancer, you may be at risk. Discuss your risk factors with a doctor to see whether you need more regular testing.

Medication: 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors may reduce cancer risk. Discuss drug advantages and hazards with a doctor.

These precautions may lower cancer risk, but they are not guarantees. Individualised risk assessment, early discovery, and appropriate treatment need regular check-ups and healthcare professional talks.


Drugs help treat prostate cancer. cancer drugs include:

Hormone Therapy:

LHRH Agonists: Drugs like leuprolide, goserelin, and triptorelin decrease testosterone synthesis, which feeds cancer cells. These injectable or implantable drugs reduce advanced cancer development.

Anti-Androgens: Bicalutamide, flutamide, and enzalutamide prevent cancer cells from responding to androgens. For better hormone suppression, they are commonly administered alongside LHRH agonists.

Androgen biosynthesis inhibitors like abiraterone acetate block testosterone production. They are used with prednisone or prednisolone to treat advanced cancer that has developed resistant to hormonal therapy.


Docetaxel and hormone treatment treat advanced cancer that has spread. It slows disease progression and improves survival.

Cabazitaxel: Like docetaxel, this chemotherapy medication treats advanced prostate cancer that has grown resistant.

Targeted Therapy

Androgen receptor inhibitors Enzalutamide and Apalutamide. They decrease cancer development by blocking androgen receptors.

Rucaparib and Olaparib: These PARP inhibitors treat advanced cancer with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations.


Sipuleucel-T: A patient’s immune cells are collected, modified in a lab, and then infused back into the patient to trigger an immunological response against cancer cells.
These cancer drugs are examples. Stage, aggressiveness, patient health, and genetic alterations determine the medicine. Healthcare experts collaborate with patients to select the best drugs and treatment strategy.

Each prescription has side effects, and doctors should address the pros and cons.

Risk factors of Prostate cancer

cancer risk factors vary. Being aware of risk factors doesn’t guarantee sickness, but it’s vital. Common risk factors:

Age raises cancer risk. Over-65 males are most affected. Risk increases dramatically after 50.

Family History: Prostate cancer in fathers or brothers increases risk. Multiple relatives or early sickness increase risk.

Genetics: BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations increase prostate cancer risk. These gene alterations are more frequent in breast and ovarian cancer but may potentially raise prostate cancer risk in males.

Race/Ethnicity: African-American and Caribbean males of African heritage are more likely to get cancer. These populations are more aggressive. Asian and Hispanic guys are safer than Caucasians.

cancer is more common in North America, Northwestern Europe, Australia, and the Caribbean. Asia has fewer cases.

Obesity: Obesity is linked to aggressive cancer. Studying this association’s causes.

Diet: Red and processed meats and a low-fruit and vegetable diet may raise cancer risk. More study is required to prove a relationship.

Chemical exposure: Occupational exposure to cadmium or Agent Orange may raise cancer risk. However, their overall role in cancer development is still being researched.

cancer may occur in people without risk factors. Healthcare providers may evaluate risk and recommend monitoring and prevention with regular testing.


Certainly! FAQs:

Prostate gland?

Men have a tiny, walnut-sized prostate gland below the bladder and in front of the rectum. Seminal fluid feeds and carries sperm during ejaculation.
What are early prostate cancer symptoms?

Early signs may be absent. Frequent urination, difficulty beginning or stopping, weak urine flow, blood in the urine or semen, erectile dysfunction, and pelvic discomfort may occur as cancer develops. Non-cancerous illnesses might also generate same symptoms.
Prostate cancer screening should begin when?

After discussing advantages and cons with a doctor, prostate cancer screening should be done. Most men mention screening at 50. For men at greater risk, such as those with a family history of prostate cancer or African-American males, screening conversations may start earlier, around age 45 or even 40.
Prostate cancer screening tests?

The PSA blood test and DRE are the major prostate cancer screening tests. The DRE examines the prostate gland via the rectum, whereas the PSA test evaluates blood PSA levels.
Prostate cancer diagnosis—how?

Screening, clinical, and other testing are used to diagnose prostate cancer. PSA, DRE, transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), prostate biopsy, and imaging tests may establish cancer stage and grade.
Prostate cancer therapy options?

Stage, grade, and individual characteristics determine prostate cancer therapy. Active surveillance, radical prostatectomy, radiation treatment (external beam or brachytherapy), hormone therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy are examples. Healthcare experts discuss and customise therapy.
Prostate cancer: curable?

When caught early, prostate cancer is treatable. The stage and grade of the cancer, the patient’s condition, and the treatment’s efficacy affect cure rates. Manage cancer and improve quality of life in advanced patients.
Prostate cancer prevention—how?

Lifestyle decisions may lower prostate cancer risk. These include eating well, exercising, avoiding cigarettes and alcohol, and talking to doctors about drugs and treatments.
Prostate cancer symptoms, tests, diagnosis, and treatment should be discussed with a doctor.

Myth versus facts

Certainly! Prostate cancer myths and facts:

Myth: Prostate cancer affects elderly men.
Prostate cancer may afflict men of any age. Prostate cancer in younger men is rarer.

Myth: Prostate cancer always has symptoms.
Fact: Early prostate cancer symptoms may be absent. Symptoms may only arise as cancer advances. Because prostate cancer signs are unreliable, regular testing are essential for early identification.

Myth: Family history of prostate cancer guarantees it.
Fact: Family history of prostate cancer increases your risk but does not ensure the illness. A doctor may estimate your risk and offer screening and prevention based on your family history.

Myth: High PSA always indicates prostate cancer.
Fact: An increased blood PSA level may signal prostate cancer, but it does not definitely signify malignancy. Infections and enlarged prostates may also raise PSA readings. Cancer detection requires a prostate biopsy.

Myth: Prostate cancer kills.
Prostate cancer may be aggressive. Some prostate cancers develop slowly and don’t affect the body, while others spread. Localised or early-stage prostate cancer may be treated successfully if detected early.

Myth: Prostate cancer therapy usually causes impotence and incontinence.
Fact: Some men have erectile dysfunction and urine incontinence after therapy. Targeted medicines and nerve-sparing surgery have improved results and minimised adverse effects. Rehabilitation and support services may aid with treatment issues.

Myth: Prostate cancer usually requires prompt treatment.
Fact: Prostate cancer treatment depends on stage, grade, and individual health. Active surveillance, which delays or avoids treatment until disease progresses, may be appropriate for low-risk or early-stage prostate cancer. Healthcare specialists will evaluate the problem and provide a solution.

Accurate information and personalised prostate cancer counselling from healthcare experts are essential.


Certainly! Prostate cancer terms:

Prostate cancer affects the prostate gland in the male reproductive system. It’s men’s most frequent cancer.

PSA: Prostate gland cells create PSA. PSA blood levels may indicate prostate health. Elevated PSA levels may suggest prostate cancer, but more testing is required to confirm.

Digital Rectal Exam (DRE): A doctor uses a gloved, lubricated finger to feel the prostate gland during a DRE. It evaluates prostate size, shape, and texture to identify abnormalities.

Prostate cancer aggressiveness is measured by the Gleason score. Prostate biopsy samples determine it. High scores indicate aggressive cancer.

Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) employs sound waves to scan the prostate gland. It may guide the biopsy needle and deliver prostate size, features, and questionable locations information.

Radical prostatectomy removes the prostate gland and surrounding structures. Localised prostate cancer therapy tries to eliminate malignant cells to cure the condition.

Radiation Therapy: High-energy X-rays or other radiation destroy or stop cancer cells. It targets localised prostate cancer with external beam radiation treatment or brachytherapy.

Hormone treatment: Androgen deprivation treatment reduces testosterone and other male hormones in the body. Hormone treatment slows prostate cancer cell development by inhibiting androgen synthesis.

Chemotherapy: This systemic treatment kills or prevents cancer cells. It targets body-wide prostate cancer cells in advanced or metastatic cases.

Active Surveillance: PSA testing, DREs, and repeat biopsies track prostate cancer development. Men with low-risk or early-stage prostate cancer may postpone or delay treatment until disease progresses.

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